Quarterback Throwing Mechanics

The following was written by Dub Maddox, coach at Jenks High School (Oklahoma). Dub has also co-authored a fantastic book on quarterback throwing mechanics, From Headset To Helmet – Coaching the R4 Expert System: Accelerating Quarterback Decision-Making under pressure. – Ed. Note.

I use these techniques
From recruiting, to the NFL draft, to just day-to-day coaching, no position gets more scrutiny than the quarterback and no aspect of being a good quarterback is more difficult — or mystifying — than the quarterback’s throwing motion. the question remains: Can a quarterback throwing mechanics be improved?

While reading the article, The Pursuit of the Perfect Throwing Motion by David Flemming, I was intrigued by some of the things he learned from his study. In particular, he discovered throwing the football is the most complex motor skill in all of sports. With most exercise scientists and kinesiologists agreeing, more people are finding out what most coaches have known for quite some time. Changing a quarterback throwing mechanics is challenging and can be flat out intimidating.

Once most people come to this conclusion there tends to be two schools of thought as it relates to changing quarterback throwing mechanics.

1.It’s all about the footwork (the feet are what throw the ball)
2.You can’t change a quarterback throwing mechanics (he can either throw or he can’t)
This is the dilemma I found myself in as a coach five years ago after getting upset in the first round of the playoffs. Having to watch a very talented sophomore quarterback struggle with his mechanics that season pushed me to a path of pursuit on how to teach the perfect throwing motion. As I began my research through clinics, DVD’s, books, college visits, and local guru’s, I had compiled a list of coaching points like, “Stand tall, step small”; “Flick the booger of the finger”; “Pick the dollar out of the left pocket”; “Turn the key”; “Answer the phone with ball”; “Crushpebbles with your feet” ; “Slap the wall”; “ watch how Brady, Montana, or Elway throw” and the list goes on and on. At the end of it all I was left with a myriad of different philosophies and techniques and the same conclusions that Flemming had in his article. As a result, I had almost submitted my belief on throwing mechanics to one of the two prevailing schools of thought. It wasn’t until I came across a 3 DVD set on Passing Mechanics by Darin Slack that I knew that I had finally found someone who had cracked the code on how to teach and train the most complex motor skill in all of sports. He was explaining the “Why” behind every motion and drill. He was backing every movement up with science and biomechanics. I felt like I had just discovered gold.

Tim Tebow

I no longer had to submit to the two schools of thought on mechanics and what I didn’t believe to be true. After 5 years of coaching quarterbacks at Jenks High School and working for the Darin Slack Quarterback Academy here is what I have learned as it relates to the two prevailing schools of thought:

“It’s all about the footwork (the feet are what throw the ball)”

It seemed when I first started my pursuit of learning how to throw the football that everywhere I turned most coaches only focused on the feet. Most of the material I came into contact with stated that the feet are what throw the ball. My struggle with this concept stemmed from two pictures in my mind…a picture of a man with no arms and another picture of a man with no legs. If the feet are what throw the ball then how does a man without legs throw? At the NFL combine, Tim Tebow clocked a 4.7 forty time, 4.17 pro agility time, and a 38.5 inch vertical. If I submit to the school of thought that footwork is the key to consistent power, accuracy, and velocity then Tebow should be the best pure passer coming out of the draft. Yet he was the most scrutinized, Why? In Flemming’s article he states, “Throwing the football well is not about doing one or two big things great. Instead, it’s about perfecting a thousand different parts of an intricate, complicated kinetic chain that starts in the toes and ends at the finger tips.” Through Flemmings article I am finding that people are starting to discover what I found through a set of 3 DVDs 5 years ago. Throwing a football is more than mastering footwork; it’s about mastering the sequential movements in the kinetic chain through the entire throw. If I only focus on footwork I am only focusing on half of the kinetic chain. What about the other half? I go back to the picture with the man with no legs. What does he use to throw the football? It is his arm. If the arm is the mechanism that throws the ball then wouldn’t it be important to understand how this mechanism controls proper ball flight? To overcome the arm issue a quarterback must understand the 4 key positions of the arm motion in the kinetic chain. (To demonstrate we will use Peyton Manning on the left and Jenks QB Sawyer Kollmorgen on the right.)

•Pre Pass Triangle – The kinetic chain in the arm starts in the Pre Pass Triangle position. With the elbows level at the base and a loaded wrist in the “cocked” position off the back shoulder, the triangle shape provides for a powerful position to launch the football. If the body was going to throw a punch it would load the arm instinctually in the same position. The Pre Pass Triangle position reduces tendency to internally rotate (wind up) on the throw, aligns arm in a power position, and reduces wasted motion for faster a faster release.

•“L” Transistion – The next position in the kinetic chain during the throw. The move to this position is done by using the 4 rotator cuff muscles that surround the scapula. The infrasprinatus and teres minor externally rotate the arm back into the “L” position. When the arm is in the “L” position it elongates the suprasprinatus and subscapularis which allow the muscles to accelerate the elbow to the lead position.

•Elevate to “Zero” – The lead position the elbow has to be in to support the wrist. You may have heard coaches say “get the elbow up”. The elbow only needs to go high enough to get over and ahead of the shoulder on the throw. The smoothness and efficiency of this move is the key to consistent power and accuracy on a throw. With the loading of the suprasprinatus and subscapularis muscles in the “L” position the elbow can now elevate and move ahead of the shoulder aided by the deltoid to get to “Zero”. “Zero” is orthopedic term given to the elbow in the lead position because the rotator cuff muscles are neutral with no strain on them. The “Zero” position places the elbow 6 inches ahead of the shoulder 45 degrees up and out and loads the tricep in a position to fire the ball down the target hallway.

•Extension – The kinetic chain of power that occurs as the tricep fires energy up through arm and out through the wrist/fingers into the ball. If the wrist fires early before the tricep the kinetic chain is out of order and the ball will sail or wobble. A quarterback that pulls down on the football does not extend and therefore is not getting the full benefit of the tricep. When trying to understand the power of extension on a throw, think of the difference between a pistol and a sniper rifle. Which one is more accurate and can shoot the bullet further? The sniper rifle. Why? It has a longer barrel that allows the force and spin to act longer on the bullet which in turn puts more accuracy and velocity in the bullet as it comes out of the barrel.

When a coach and a quarterback get on the same page and understand the (How’s and Why’s) behind the most complex motion in all of sports it provides for a drastic advantage on the playing field. However, getting your quarterback to understand the concepts of throwing mechanics will not support a change on its own, which leads us to the second school of thought.

“You can’t change a quarterback throwing mechanics (he can either throw or he can’t).”

There are many coaches who know way more than I do about football that have said you can’t change or quarterbacks throwing motion. I have even heard some say to stay away from the quarterbacks arm entirely. I have always struggled with this. If I am in the weight room and I see a kid with 315 pounds on the squat rack and he has he is leaning over at the waist with his chest down and a curved lower back am I going to not try to fix him? The argument could be made that teaching a proper squat is easier than teaching the most complex motion in all of sports. But just because teaching a proper throw is more difficult does it mean that I am pardoned of having to teach it at all? Maybe it just means that I need to put more effort into knowing my craft. The key to changing any motion (especially the most difficult) is knowing how a quarterback learns to throw. Most quarterbacks learn to throw by picking up a football at a young age and just chunking it. This is called implicit learning. Implicit learning is learning in the absence of proper instruction. While learning to throw implicitly allows for a fluid motion it tends to produce bad mechanics. The other type of learning is called explicit learning. This is learning with proper instruction. This type of learning focuses on the non-negotiables or rules of the task. While learning to throw explicitly allows a quarterback to know all the (how’s and why’s) of throwing a football it tends to produce a mechanical and choppy motion. This is the point where a coach becomes frustrated and gives up submitting to the second school of thought… you can’t change mechanics. The secret to changing a quarterback throwing mechanics is in the power of a process and the formula is the lynch pin of The Quarterback Academy by Darin Slack.

In order to produce lasting change you have to take a quarterback and teach him the non-nogotiables (how’s and why’s). Next, you build a battery of drills that isolate each mechanic and then build each drill sequentially on the previous mechanics (process). Then you rep the movements over and over until you are feeling the move instead of thinking about it. Instead of muscle memory we call it the power of informed feel. When a quarterback learns the (how’s and why’s) combined with the feel he now has the ability to Self-Correct, not Self-Destruct — advantage Offense. To learn more about quarterback throwing mechanics and quarterback play come to a camp or visit www.quarterbackacademy.com.

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How to Rush the Quarterback

To teach a youth football player how to rush the quarterback I would first make sure the pass rushers know the types of rushes that are available for them to use. We would go over the rip, the swat and swim and the bull rush. I like to use a fourth style also I learned while watching a Reggie White interview a long time ago. A player sets the lineman up by favoring the rush to the outside, the when he thinks the lineman is cheating to the outside he employs this other move. At the snap the defender goes up field like he is going to rush the outside, then plants his inside foot while simultaneously getting his inside hand in the armpit of the line man. He then shoves the lineman while he is off balance to his outside, which creates a clear path to the quarterback. One would have to have considerable upper body strength to accomplish this move.

Every player will have a favorite style of how to rush the quarterback, but the objective of this first stage is to get the competent at a couple of other styles. During this first stage, we would also go over the hand and footwork required to use these moves. During the second stage of the staircase I would have the defensive lineman go against the offensive linemen and you can use another player to simulate the quarterback if he is not available, I am sure that he is probably doing more important things. This stage would be at half speed in full pads so the players can get a feel for the new move they have learned. For the third step I would put first team offensive line against the defenders, no matter what string they are. During this process, I would keep tract of which players were using proper hand and foot techniques, and after the drill refresh the memories of the ones who failed to use proper technique. The fourth step would be to use a game to exhaust the player, which would create muscle memory for the moves learned. The game could pit one defensive lineman against a constantly rotating offensive lineman, this way the offensive lineman will be fresh, whereas the defender will be tired.

IOWA CITY, IA - OCTOBER 23- Quarterback Scott ...

A coach could use some way to keep track of points to make it a competition on how to rush the quarterback. Creating muscle memory is the best way to have the human body do what you want it to do when a person is so tired that their brain shuts down, it is all about repetition. Unless you see that the players do not understand in practice, the only real proof of whether the system is really working or not will happen on game night. The techniques I would use to teach the pass rush would start with proper stance then jump to proper hand and foot movement and finish with the follow through and properly tackling the quarterback.

The first key point in learning how to rush the quarterback is to recognizing the pass protection. It is stated in the text that this step does not have to be used all of the time. If it is 3rd and 19, the hope is that the defenders can be reckless in their pursuit of the quarterback because the quarterback is probably going to pass, and if they did run the ball there would be a slim chance that they would succeed in getting the first down.

Another key point in how to rush the quarterback is staying in your lane, this one is important because you do not want to disrupt the other pass rushers on your team from completing their task by getting in their way. The last two key points are to use the move taught and to use other moves. The last is especially important; you do not want to be the defender getting pancaked because you do the same rushing move every time. Then during the film study on Monday it will hurt all over again as your teammates laugh. The video really made sense to me because it was a concept that I was already familiar with.

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7 Steps to Succeeding at Running Back

KANSAS CITY, MO - OCTOBER 02:  Running back De...

All of these running back drills can be developed and there are a number of different things you can do to improve as a running back. Here some tips to help you do just that:

Notice Your Weaknesses

Running back drills

If you are able to watch back a tape of your performances then do so and make a note of where you are making mistakes. Maybe you are having trouble following your blockers or making the correct cuts when required. When you know and understand the areas you need to improve you are on the way to becoming a better running back. Ignoring criticism and problems is no way to develop as a player.

Define Your Style

Running back drills

Depending on your build and physical attributes you will be suited to a particular style of running. For example if you are a big and powerful build you will be much more suited to carrying the ball between the tackles whereas if you are a smaller, quicker player you will be better running to the outside and beating players with speed and agility rather than power. Make sure you know what your strengths are and play to them.

Work Harding in

Running back drills

There are so many different drills designed to improve all the areas required to be a good running back. Rather than practicing full contact running, working through running back drills can be much more effective in helping you improve skills such as your ball control, agility, making cuts and awareness.

Work on Your Strength

When developing your strength training, don’t simply focus on one area of your body. If you build up upper body strength without working on your leg strength, then you aren’t going to develop as a running back. You need to work on getting stronger in the legs and the upper body and you will cause more problems to defenders.

Know Your Plays










Understanding the plays and knowing where you need to be following your blockers is a simple step to improving as a runner. Being organized and aware of what is going on will make it much easier for you to gain yards consistently.

Practice Catching

The running back position is not all about carrying the ball from the line of scrimmage. Being able to run routes and catch the ball downfield will make you a much more versatile and dynamic running back.

Practice Blocking

Running back drills

Occasionally you will not be involved as a playmaker during the game and you will be needed to protect the quarterback. Simply developing your blocking skills will make you a much more valuable running back and benefit you with more time on the field.

David Jones is the author of the free Football Coaching eBook filled with 60 Football Drills and Practice Plans For Developing the Fundamentals of Football. It includes complete step-by-step illustrations, easy-to-follow instructions, and coaching points for all 60 football drills. For free football drills, articles, tips and advice, visitfootballfundamentals.net.

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Youth Football – Organizational Checklist

American football

Image by alschim via Flickr

Here’s a great Youth Football Organizational Checklist from Jerry Campbell‘s football forum.  This Youth Football Organizational Checklist will keep you organized which is of utmost importance when coaching a youth football tem.

Give this a good look and feel free to make changes to fit your unique situation.

OFFENSE: GENERAL STRUCTURE Youth Football Organizational Checklist

Huddle alignment, information conveyed by QB, procedure for breaking huddle.
How plays are to be communicated to QB. Substitutions or signals (hand signals from sideline, wristbands, etc.).
Snap Count (cadence).
Audible System.
Formations & Alignment.
Personnel Groupings.
Numbering System.
Motion – Receivers & Backs.
Defensive technique numbering system.
Stance & Start – First steps

OFFENSIVE POSITIONS – The following position assignments should be covered on a daily basis;
Stance / Gripping the ball / Snap & exchange with QB / Steps / Blocks
Ace, Duece and Trey combinations
Mollie / Collie
Set the huddle

Blocks: Base
Log (Hook)
Combo’s (Ace, Duece, Trey)
Zone (Inside – Outside)
Scoop or Zone (Backside)

Pass Protection:
3 step drop (90-91 series).
5 step drop (60 – 61 series).
Play Action (100 series) – To or away.
Sprint Out (80 – Right, 81 Left).
Screens – To or away.
Assignments – Run & Pass (To or away).

Tight Ends: (Same as linemen plus…)
How to carry the football.
How to catch the football.
Pass Routes.
Releases for routes.

Running Backs:
How to carry the football. Left & right.
How to catch the football.
How to key blocks as to where to run.
Blocks: Lead / Kick out / Load / Perimeter / Pass Protection Blocks
Assignments: Ball to or Ball away.

Snap & exchange with center.
Snap count / clear – assertive – slow.
Gripping the ball / ball position.
First steps.
Handoffs / ball position.
How to carry the ball.
Mesh If Applicable.
Throwing motion. Entire body (not just arm movement).
Pitch – Option motion. Left & Right.
Defensive fronts & adjustments to formations.
Defensive secondary alignments & adjustments to formations.

Pass Drops:
One Step.
Three step.
Five step.
Seven Step.
Sprint out.
Play action.
Assignments: Run / Pass

No Huddle
Formations and adjustments to them.
Motion and adjustment to it.
Signals for defensive calls.
No huddle offenses adjustments.
Personnel groupings.
Sideline organization.

DEFENSIVE POSITIONS Youth Football Organizational Checklist
Down Linemen:
Stance & Alignment.
Gap control.
First step and blow delivery.
Reaction to different blocks:
Drive / reach / down / trap / zone / scoop (backside)
Pass rush techniques.
Line stunts. Pass or Run.
Contain responsibilities.
Tackling & pursuit drills.

Stance & Alignment.
Gap control.
First step and blow delivery.
Reaction to blocks and backfield action:
Drive / reach or zone / down / trap / pass protection.
Reaction to different types of passes and protection.
Pass drops and coverage’s.
Stunts – run or pass stunts.
Contain responsibilities.
Tackling & pursuit drills.

Stance & Alignment.
Sideline, hash marks, and field position adjustments.
Coverage’s: Zone (concept behind it). Man. Combination of zone & man.
First steps.
Reaction to pass routes or run.
Techniques vs. run blocks.
Techniques vs. pass routes.
Different alignment adjustments for certain coverage’s. Press drills.
Contain drills.
Tackling drills & pursuit drills.


Regular Punt, Spread Punt & Coverage
Tight Punt & Coverage
Alignment and technique.
Center Snap
Quick Kick & Coverage
Fake Punt Run / Pass
Reaction to blocked punt.
Punt Return Youth Football Organizational Checklist
Alignment and technique.
Field Ball, Fair Catch
Right – Left – Middle – Reverse
Punt Block
One or Two Returners Deep?
Hold Up?

Alignment and technique.
Kicker : Deep Onside – High Onside – Squibb
Kickoff After Safety
Harsh Marks or Middle Kick

Kickoff Return Youth Football Organizational Checklist
Alignment and technique.
Middle – Right – Left – Reverse – Specials
Expecting Onside (Hands Team)
Kickoff Return After Safety
Star Burst
Personnel Groups

Extra Point
Alignment and technique.
Fire vs. bad snap
Reaction to blocked EP.
Swinging Gate If Applicable
Two- point plays.

Field Goal
Alignment and technique.
Reaction to blocked FG.
Field Goal after fair catch.

Extra Point and Field Goal Block
Right – Left – Middle – Look for fake.
When to return Kick or let the ball hit the ground.

I know it’s a long Youth Football Organizational Checklist, but I think it is about as thorough of a list that I’ve ever seen.


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The Proper Way to Catch a Football

Deutsch: Der Quarterback Shaun Carney läuft mi...

Here’s a great tip from Jerry Campbell football on the proper way to catch a football.  It’s a great read!

1. Keep your eyes on the ball at all times. A good way to stay zeroed on the ball is to watch the “X” on the tip of the ball.Everytime you take your eyes off the ball you increase your chances of dropping it. If you aren’t focused on the ball when it hits you in the hands, catching it becomes pure luck.  This is the first step in learning the proper way to catch a football.

2. Extend your arms toward the ball, as the ball approaches, so your hands meet it at the furthest possible point. Do not run with your arms extended. Extend your arms right before the ball reaches you.

3. Make a triangle with both hands, palms facing away from your body. Thumbs pointing at each other, all other fingers pointing up. You want the tip of the ball heading for the open space in between your two hands. If the ball is below the waist, palms still face out, but put your pinkies together,if you are running and the ball is coming over you should also put you pinkies together.

4. Catch the ball, letting it get about halfway between your hands before clamping down on it with all your fingers. Keeping your eyes on it the whole time. (If the pass is below the waist let the ball slide through the inside of your palms about halfway and then clamp down on it)

5. Proceed to tuck the ball away, under your arm on the opposite side of any defenders.

6. Now that the ball is caught, run with it (football game), throw it back (playing catch), or whatever the game you’re playing requires you to do.  Always use the proper way to catch a football when performing this drill.

7. Make sure that you see in your mind catching the pass. And under no circumstances think about not catching it. Don’t forget when the football touches your hands or any part of your arms try to tuck it in.

These seven tips will have any player learning the proper way to catch a football.

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Teaching Your QB the Right Technique of Throwing the Football

LAKE BUENA VISTA, FL - JUNE 13:  In this hando...

There is a dynamite DVD set made by Sonny Detmer that teaches the young player the correct mechanics for throwing the football.  If you want your child throwing the football and to have a chance at playing the QB position then this DVD is a must have.  The video is readily available at Amazon.

Hubert “Sonny” Detmer is one of the most respected coaches in Texas high school football at helping players of all ages at throwing the football. During his 40 plus year coaching career, he has worked at eight different high schools where his teams have many playoff appearances.  A great deal of this success is due to his quarterbacks know the right way of throwing the football.

He pioneered an easy to learn passing system that is very difficult to defend. His teams, which set several seasonal and career passing Texas records, were one of the few teams that threw the ball to win games.

During this time, he developed and refined a natural method to teach proper way of throwing the football mechanics. He continues to instruct quarterbacks of all ages in this method that uses three simple drills to give the perfect passing form. Proof that his method works is in Detmer’s two sons, Ty and Koy, who set Texas high school passing records. Ty won the coveted Heisman Trophy in 1990 playing at BYU and at Colorado, Koy threw for 5390 yards, second-most in school history. Both sons went on to collectively play in the NFL for 23 years.

No this by no means you will have a guaranteed college scholarship by following the steps in this video set, but I can assure you it will make your quarterback better and your his will be better at throwing the football.


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What is the Difference Between the Single Wing, Double Wing and Wildcat?

Wildcat formation

A popular question nowadays is what is the difference between the Single Wing, Double Wing and the Wildcat football formation?  All three have become extremely popular in recent years at the youth football level.

Below is a great expiation from coach Jerry Campbell who gives a brief history of the three football formations.

Single Wing Football Formation

This archaic formation was popular for most of the first 50 years of modern American football, but it is rare today, except as a novelty. There are many variations of the single wing with really the only common thread being that, rather than lining up “under center”, the quarterback is lined up a few yards behind with RBs on either side of him (similar to a modern shotgun formation).

In the original single wing, the QB was called the “tailback” and the FB was called the “quarterback” or “blocking back”The most famous version of the Single Wing offense would be Knute Rockne’s “Notre Dame Box” that he ran with the Four Horsemen. It contained two tight ends, and 4 backs. The quarterback in this formation (called at the time a “single-wing tailback”), like today’s shotgun QB, received the snap on the fly. The other 3 backs lined up on the same side of the QB in various arrangements. Also, the formation often featured an unbalanced line where the center (that is, the player who snapped the ball) was not strictly in the center of the line, but close to the weakside. The formation was originally designed as a brute-force running formation, since it had 7 players to one side of the center and only 2 on the other. Rockne’s innovations with this formation involved using complicated backfield shifts and motion to confuse defenses, and adapting it as a passing formation. The single wing has recently had a renaissance of sorts with high schools; since it is so rare, its sheer novelty can make it successful.

Wildcat football formation 
Early in the 2008 season, the Miami Dolphins used a modern variant of the single wing formation known as the Wildcat formation. During the latter part of the 2008 season, and throughout the 2009 season, many different NFL teams have instituted their own versions of the Wildcat. Some attribute the origins of the “Wildcat” to Bill Snyder’s Kansas State (whose sports teams are known as the “Wildcats”) offense of the late ’90s and early 2000s, which featured a lot of zone read runs by the quarterback. Others attribute the origins to Hugh Wyatt, a Double Wing coach (See Double WIng discussion below). Both the Snyder and the Wyatt versions were different than the “Wildhog” version used by the University of Arkansas for their versatile running back Darren McFadden. Most recently the Cleveland Browns have used this formation with Josh Cribbs and Ohio State University has also used the wildcat with Ted Ginn Jr. and Daniel “Boom” Herron. Villanova University won the 2009 Division I FCS championship using a multiple offense that incorporated the Wildcat. The University of Alabama employed the wildcat as part of their 2009 BCS championship team’s offensive package and continues to use it today with playmakers Mark Ingram, Trent Richardson, and Marquis Maze (though with Maze it is nicknamed the “bobcat” due to his small stature).

Double Wing football formation

The double wing, a variant of the single wing, was invented by Pop Warner in 1912. The offense is primarily a running offense using misdirection and power plays. Most double-wing plays use a motioning wing back at the start of each play. The modern version was developed by Don Markham.

A version known as the “wildcat offense” uses the same plays as the double-wing offense except that it uses a direct snap to either back and allows for more passing. “All plays are still ran the same, but with added deception since there is no hand off exchange between the fullback and quarterback.” The Wall Street Journal and Sports Illustrated have also reported that the “Wildcat” version of the double wing is a possible precursor to the modern wildcat formation that has been popularized by the Miami Dolphins and a number of college teams. The Double Wing is often incorrectly referred to as the Wing T, which is similar, but uses a different formation of the backs. The Double Wing is used mostly at a high school level, although some colleges run a similar offense out of the flexbone, but usually focus more on option runs. The Double Wing usually puts a wing back in motion at the beginning of the play, and the defense can sometimes pick up on this and use that to know where the play is going, so the Double Wing uses counters where the back that doesn’t go in motion gets the ball. Also, the double wing can be set into different formations, such as the Maryland I, to take away the pre-snap key on the wing back, yet still run all the plays effectively.

I have successfully used all three formations over the past five years, but must admit I’m still a spread guy.  I like these formations, especially the single wing if I do not have much talent, but if I have a few players, I’m looking to spread you out and make you defend the whole field.


Visit Football Playbook for a variety of play books all modified for the youth level and proven to succeed.
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Visit Football Playbook for a variety of play books all modified for the youth level and proven to succeed.


Visit Football Playbook for a variety of play books all modified for the youth level and proven to succeed.